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emotional services. it is difficult for them to receive them. i think if we can be pro-active in that approach, it would be a tremendous asset across the board. many of these children who are acting out and bullying our children who are afraid, who are dealing with traumatic things in their life on a regular basis. the office of juvenile justice and delinquency prevention has a tremendous website in regard to resources on prevention. the research you had mentioned in regard to appear to appear is outstanding, and restore to justice practices for those children who need remediation, but if you give children an opportunity to make a distance within the community, take on a different role, that opportunity
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for service of learning and engagement within the community, within the school environment, you create a society which is a microcosm within the schools. the schools have an opportunity to make a difference for these children that may not get it anywhere else. if we can provide this opportunity within that setting, we can have a tremendous long- term effect for these children. >> thank you so much. thank you all very much for coming. [applause] [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2012] >> more "road to the white house coverage coming up this weekend as the -- we will be live from downtown detroit as committee
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members work on the platform that will be -- that will be voted on in charlotte in september. the coverage gets underway at 9:30 a.m. eastern. watch campaign speeches, past platform meetings and more attacks >> i do not envy the drowsy harmony of the republican party. they squelch debate, we welcome it. they deny differences, we bridge them. they are uniform, we are united. the choices this year are not just between two different personalities or between two political parties. they are between two different
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visions of the future, two fundamentally different ways of governing. their government of pessimism, fear, and limits, or hours of hope, confidence, and growth. >> c-span has dared predict aired every minute of every party convention since 1984. watch the republican and democratic national conventions live on c-span starting monday, august 27. >> further discussion on the 2012 presidential race from today's "washington journal." this is about 50 minutes. host: newt gingrich is here now. your position on welfare and you are all over the place today. "usa today" says mitt romney is focusing on the welfare law. it says you're calling president 0, the anti-clinton.
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guest: i said there was a real gamble on the obama part. clinton announced a base -- in a state of the union that big government was over and obama is creating it. clinton created the leadership council and obama has taken the party to the left. he vetoed welfare reform twice and we finally worked it out. it is the most important social conservative reform in our lifetime. obama gutted the welfare provision by issuing a regulation. which is illegal by the way. clinton and i worked at a balanced budget and in a bipartisan way, that led to four surpluses. obama has led to the largest
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deficits in history. because of welfare reform and economic growth, the number of children in poverty dropped for the most in the last two years of the clinton administration. on almost every major zone, clinton is in one world and obama is in another. host: what have you been saying? guest: obama in 1996 as a senator opposed work requirements. this substantial of liberal democrats bitterly opposed this. section 407 is very direct. no waiver is legal. the reason is we wanted to
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force the state social service bureaucrats to recognize that this was a major shift back to the work ethic and that had an obligation to apply the work ethic to the poor. president obama has gone in and issued proposed regulation on health and human services which congress has said that you cannot waive. if they don't intend to waive the work requirement, what are they doing it? they say they are leaping to conclusions and i think it is nonsense. it is clear that people who are left wing the don't require work requirements are now working for the same thing. host: newt gingrich will be with us for about 45 minutes and take your calls. we want to get back to the presidential race itself.
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lots have been written about the mitt romney campaign advertisement titled the rise and fall of welfare reform and that sparked discussion this week and we will take a look. [video clip] >> this provides opportunity and demanding responsibility. this bill will help people go to work so they can stop trying a welfare check and start drawing a paycheck. >> why should an able-bodied person receiving welfare benefits not be required to work? ani believe it isn't important change. yes, people should work. hardworking american citizens should not required to carry people. >> i introduced the concept of thefair in 1996.
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i was lambasted for mandatory work for anyone receiving welfare. >> i am a huge supporter of a federal plan that was signed in 1996. >> i would not probably have supported the federal bill. >> the obama administration quietly issued waivers to welfare law. host: you have been pressed on this issue. where are you with this issue? guest: that came out of a conversation that was pretty convoluted. have they waved a work requirement? no, it has only been around since july 12. do i believe they will? absolutely.
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the advertisement sets of what has not yet happened but you have to ask yourself why they would waive -- why would they put in place a waiver? the particular reporter was determined to get me to say that it had not happened yet but it will happen if he gets reelected because otherwise, why would be set up? host: lots of other issues to go through but let's get the viewers involved. newark, delaware, on the democratic line. caller: i have a comment. you are throwing peanuts to the poor man because he cannot get a job and just criticizing. this is what i want to set to the republicans. love your sells more than you hate the president.
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he has your interest at heart. if mitt romney gets in, the republicans will be like they were in the great depression. thank you so very much. host: any reaction? guest: she is obviously a hard- core democrats. when i was speaker we worked in a bipartisan way with bill clinton. the largest reduction in children in poverty in american history is the two years after we passed a law. i think we can work together to get things done better good that i think president obama is much too far to the left and compared to president clinton, he is much too partisan. host: this is from "the new york times" --
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what do you think of mitt romney at this point? guest: i think he is a smart, hard-working guy with great management capabilities who has put together a very effective campaign and won the nomination and did so in a real fight and i was in the middle of it. i also think " the new york times" is just plain wrong. why would you issue a proposed waiver, something it that is illegal, if you're not going to waver? there is a desperate desire to protect president obama. "the new york times" editorial board is on the left and they want to protect president obama. it is clear what they're trying to do. robert rector is probably the best informed person on welfare reform in the country.
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he said the minute they did this, this will gut the requirement. host: williamsburg, virginia, republican, go ahead. caller: i hope you remember this -- about four years ago on the coldest morning in new york, i handed you a package of my small business, virginians for education, which is a mobil facility -- which is a mobile facility of children exercising. i have been to over 1000 schools in the state of virginia and i have had -- and the reason why i do it is because the parents pay for me to come. i am paid by the parents of the children who pay my fee which is all my customers are repeat. in respect to the pre-k health is anything that is innovative
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and reducing costs to improve service is exactly what they're fighting against. i operate a program that costs $100 per hour and i can take as many as 90 children per hour with them measured out come immediately and improve morale and help. sadly, that has meant nothing to republican or democrat leadership here in the state. it does not make a difference what local community i am in. i am battling a school board, local honors, the local school groups, teachers associations. the last thing they wanted someone to come in and out for them, out think then, and give the best facilities for the children so they will have a job. guest: i think that is a very powerful point. i have talked to a number of innovative educational technology companies.
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one had a brilliant program for learning how to read particularly for people who needed remedial reading. the resistance of the education bureaucracy to new ideas and to anything which reduces the work load and reduces the union membership and reduce payrolls has been very resistant to the kind of modernization which happens in most of the rest of american society. host: back to presidential politics -- what you make of the debate between harry reid and mitt romney? guest: harry reid isn't clearly not telling the truth. the senate majority leader should have some measure of respect. if you check mitt romney, he first released financial documents when he first ran for governor in 1992. a great deal of information is
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available there is nothing he will do that will satisfy president clinton or axelrod or the democrats who are on a mission. if you have 8.3% unemployment as a president, you would want any other issue other than the economy. mitt romney is focusing on welfare and let the democrats talk about what they want to. host: we're waiting on a vice- presidential announcement by mitt romney. who should be the next vice- president? guest: it is a very personal choice. the four criteria for vice- president is they need to be capable to be president because it is not a ceremonial job. can the person of when the election? can they be as capable as mitt romney? can they work with the senate? are the two compatible?
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what you saw in 1992 that surprised many of us is bill clinton and al gore had the right chemistry. in 2000, dick cheney brought george w. bush a sense of comfort about national security that really became an important part of the chemistry. mitt romney have to decide if they fit this objective criteria and is mitt romney comfortable with him. he's got some great choices. senator rob portman of ohio would be a possibility and governor bob mcdonnell of virginia and congressman paul ryan and center mark rubio in florida and senator kelly ayotte and there are a number of first-rate choice as he could pick from. i'm looking forward to the announcement. host: is there one you were thrilled about?
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guest: any one of those would be exciting. caller: good morning, as far as welfare is concerned in america, we're the richest country and the world. we cannot have 22 million children going to bed hungry at night because they are living in poverty. i heard you speak a few years ago at a college. you were being paid $60,000 an hour. you told these kids in college that the rich do not pay taxes, they hire attorneys and they go around the irs. were you lying or telling the truth? we know you were telling the truth. the rich don't pay taxes, they collect taxes. i heard you say that you would
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fire all the union janitors because they are making $60,000 per year which is too much. you would hire children to do their work and that you would appoint one master janitor. what is this master's name, simon legree? guest: the wealthy pay much more taxes. my point was if you raise the marginal rates to a high number like before ronald reagan, they just hired more cpa's and lawyers and find ways to avoid taxes. that is a natural edge human reaction. on the janitor issue, my younger daughter worked as a
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janitor and a first baptist church in georgia. it was her first job and she went in and clean the church and the restaurant and did everything and she got paid. she was glad she had the job. she was in junior high and they -- it gave her some money to go to things and taught her healthy habits. you have to show up. both of my children were all the way through high school and college and the boat learned terrific lessons. they have their own businesses and there were very successful. i talk to people who are extraordinarily successful who started at 14 years of age and got paid for it. my point was if you could have an opportunity and people who did exactly what i described, you have an opportunity in the poorest neighborhoods in america to pay kids to do some work or they work in the school library or the cafeteria, they help mop the floors, it is not hard and heavy work.
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you have eighth and ninth and 10th graders who want to earn money. i want to find creative new ways to tie them back to their schools and give them a chance to earn some money and give them the dignity of work rather than dependency. host: virginia, democrat, hello. caller: there is presently 56 million people on social security. you all want to redo it. there is a little over 13 million retirees. 9 million are disabled kids on social security. 33 million disabled that are not retirement age. over the years, our governments has borrowed $3 trillion from social security.
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i feel it was wrong with the program is that our government has turned it into a welfare program. if we only had retirees on it now, there would not be a problem. this time when people have kids start taking responsibility for being parents and taking care of their kids. guest: i think a lot of what she said makes it a lot of sense. we should have a retirement plan which is the way social security was designed to be. it should be fully funded. everybody on the republican side believes that everybody retire should have a guarantee and younger people should be offered the opportunity to invest in the personal social security savings accounts which has been tried since 1980 in galveston, texas and has given people two or three times bigger retirement.
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i think she brought a lot of common sense to the conversation. host: here is a suite -- -- tweet -- guest: i think the federal reserve should be audited. i think they should be held accountable. i think we should understand how much power the chairman, mr. bernanke has and i think the documents for 2008, 2009, 2010 should be investigated by the congress. in a free society, you cannot have the amount of power and money invested in one person that chairman bernanke has had. we need to have a much more accountable and much more reformed federal reserve. i think we should go back to a stable dollar and we should try to transition to having a much harder currency closer to gold than to the current
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inflationary paper we have. host: how significant is the debt right now that guest: in the long run, it becomes very significant. two things have been happening and nobody could predict. one is that inflation is two things -- how much money is available and how fast is it being spent. in the last three years, ben bernanke has dramatically suspended the supply of money but it has not lead to inflation because it is being spent so slowly that the velocity has collapsed. there is a lot of paper floating out there. the second thing to remember is that when you were in this kind of environment, because we are still the largest economy in the world and because we still have more mobile ruled law than
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any other country, people actually come to the u.s. to invest their money when they are scared. counterpressure is on the u.s. bonds pared the danger is the morning people have a are tentative and the morning inflation starts, if you have $17 trillion you're paying interest on, you'll pay enormous percentage of your budget. you'll pay more in your lifetime for interest on the debt and you will pay for national security. that is a fairly dangerous concept. those give this difficult economic choices later on. host: that reminds me of various vice-presidential possibilities who are experts like rob portman. speak to him and his ability to help the problems. guest: if you're looking for expertise, the two people know the most are rob portman and paul ryan. he has been office of the
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management budget and he is experience. paul ryan is probably the brightest person ever to chair the budget committee. the two of them are really powerful. with rob portman, he comes in a very important state in ohio. i think paul ryan will help carry wisconsin so either one of them is an asset to win the election. host: a republican -- caller: aboutj.c. watt for vice president? the media and narrative is the republicans don't want to compromise on taxes. the system is already effectively progress of according to the cbo. tax reform would result in more revenues than rate increases. the democrats had 60 in the
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senate in 2009 on like the republicans from 2002-2006 and who had an average of only 52. the democrats chose not to pass tax reform. only getting $40 billion of tax increases would not reduce the deficit because they would redirect that to more spending. guest: j.c. watts is a terrific person, a great american, a football player, a terrific preacher, has a great private sector business today. he is somebody you'd want to think about as a great talent but i don't think he would think of himself read that as being in the running for the vice-presidential nomination. this country has overspent, it is not under text and i am deeply opposed to giving washington any more money. i would put washington on a diet and get them to shrink. i don't want to feed washington. host: back to the future --
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there is one more "in"new york to piece - featured here are donald trump, michelle bachmann, ron paul at yourself. it says here that the romney campaign will have workshops at the convention nicknamed newt university. guest: i had a conversation with the mitt romney people after we suspended our campaign. i said started in 1984, i have talked a series of workshops usually in the morning and i have found that there activists from all over the country who
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are excited to come and the news media doesn't cover the time of day much. at the last convention, we did a workshop on american solutions on school choice and was shocked everybody because we have the rev. al sharpton who came to the workshop at republican convention and we have governor pawlenty who was a real leader. it was very well attended and covered by cspan and other media. people have all been said that i am an idea person. i teaching is my background. we're working out the details and will announce the details in the next day or two in tampa. these would be very issue oriented but less scripted than
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the evenings. the evenings are very controlled. this is a chance to learn about this and we will put it on line and make available to everybody in the country and it will be a chance to talk about in debt issues in the way you could not. i would rather do that than have a brief speech in the evening and i am a very comfortable with the chance to work the party. i have been a republican activist since august of 1958. i have had a very long experience of doing these things and i am looking forward to seeing many people. tampa is like a great family reunion. these workshops will be terrific. host: there is a new york times headline -- guest: i don't think it is any higher than normal. what you have is a party in transition, a new generation coming along. you have the marco rubios, and
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richard murdock and ted cruz from texas. this is a new generation. they are aggressive and intense and exciting. frankly, we can't all identify with them. this is the new blood, the new enthusiasm. you will have tension. a governing majority party will be big enough. a stable majority is about 60%, which is 180 million people. you will have a lot of tension at a family reunion. host: one more question about your campaign. you have had a couple months to reflect. are there one or two things that, if you had done them differently, might have made a difference? guest: calista and i talk about it a fair amount. she would say figuring out how early to raise much more money was a big factor.
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we got outspent particularly in florida. also, i made mistakes in trying to work with traditional consultants. i was never a traditional candidate. i am a candidate of ideas and solutions. we had an four-month detour at the beginning of the campaign set us back badly. i am not blaming the consultants. they did what they do, but it is just not how i have operated for my whole career. host: now from north carolina, an independent on the line. caller: it is an honor and pleasure, sir. guest: good to talk to you. caller: a corporation is a business where individuals have an american dream.
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to look at obama, i am never to be more than a small business owner. why should i be vilified and hated for my success? on taxes, when they raise taxes on the people we get our commodities from, like oil, gas, electricity, food, you might get a tax break, but we are just making it through. i would like to hear your rebuttal. guest: the speech that the president gave on "you did not build it," i have been watching the olympics.
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if you ask michael phelps, you have to say to yourself, he put a lot of himself into being competitive. you look at the terrific people we have had in sport after sport. if you watch beach volleyball for the women yesterday winning their third gold medal, i'm sure they had great coaches and family support and positive neighbors, but those two women went on the beach and practiced and practiced. we ought to recognize and encourage the next steve jobs, the next bill gates. but it is not just in business. we want to encourage them working for the red cross. i have a granddaughter taking ballet and a grandson who plays the bass. i want to encourage them in music, if that is their future. we want americans to have a work ethic. president obama was undermining
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precisely that talent. you mentioned taxes. you raise taxes on products, they become more expensive and scarcer. we have an american energy opportunity to become independent from the middle east, the north american continent to be independent in energy production before the end of the decade. that's not going to happen with obama. host: springfield, missouri, chris, a democrat. caller: as i watched the republican debates, i noticed all of you stood on the stage and huffed and puffed about the affordable care act. it's very important to understand every one of you were all receiving subsidized health care and pensions from my taxes. according to the office of personnel management, this
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program will begin its second season in 2008 after a highly successful first year of operation which saw 750,000 employees sign up for dental. the program also kept its costs down only 2% for the second consecutive year. i find it very strange that all of you politicians, congress included, all put down health care that is subsidized or paid for by taxes and yet you are willing to push us off and say that we don't deserve this kind of health care, we don't deserve this kind of program, when the fact that you all used health care to provide a template for the affordable care act. and why is paul ryan not tearing apart your programs in the congress, such as you
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receive lifetime health care or lifetime pensions? guest: you raised some interesting points, but they are some ways very misleading. it's much closer to a defined contribution plan rather than a defined benefit plan than it used to be. and lots of companies people can earn a long-term benefit. when they get older, members of congress are on medicare just like everybody else. that part of it is not accurate. the key difference is no corporation, including federal employees, is big enough to control medicine in america. the federal employees health benefit act is a good model to think about how to have a large number of choices.
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putting power in the hands of bureaucrats so that they start making decisions. abouts a recent argument whether or not you should have a particular text to amend treatment for prostate cancer. there was no cancer expert or prostate expert on the panel. it would lead to the premature death of 10% to 15% of the men getting prostate cancer. you have the right and your doctor has the right to practice appropriate medicine for you. i want to find ways to maximize the number of people who have health insurance. medicaid, not many people would voluntarily get on medicaid.
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studies indicate that the uninsured have better health outcomes than the people on medicaid, because medicaid tends to be so badly run. host: touching on national security, this viewer wants to know exactly what does national security mean to you? guest: it means that my grandchildren, 12 and 11, should be able to wake up every morning feeling safe and free and that their government has taken steps to preserve their safety and their freedom. whether that means stopping the mexican drug cartels or stopping radical islamists, or developing a deterrent against a rising chinese military, that their government has said this is what we need to do to keep americans safe. host: where do you see things going with iran? guest: it is a mess. this administration has been very weak and it is dangerous. i wrote a piece on radical
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islamists. we need to understand how dangerous the whole middle east is becoming. it was reported in the morning news yesterday the egyptians are bombing their own territory on the sinai. that should sober people up. if the egyptians cannot control their own territory, you have a war under way in syria and iraq and afghanistan. large parts of pakistan out of control. libya is very unstable. we need to understand how dangerous the world is. iran is a piece of that danger, but not the only danger. host: the lead editorial in the washington post talks about syria -- should there be intervention?
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guest: we should be helping to actively arm and train the independence forces to defeat the assad government and we should send clear signals that his government will not survive. i think it will break under that kind of pressure. host: you have made a good bit of news this week. in this story -- guest: it's not about an individual person, not making allegations about any one person.
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five members of congress wrote a series of letters to inspectors general, states, department of homeland security, justice, etc., and said that we want an assessment of the influence of the muslim brotherhood in your department. i think that is totally appropriate. the muslim brotherhood is a very dangerous organization. tony blair was quoted last week as saying that one of the things he has concluded is that since 9/11 we have greatly underestimated the desire of radical islamists to achieve supremacy, not toleration. he went on to say that the west is asleep. i think these letters were an effort to wake us up. intenselynating how emotional some of the reaction to the letters has been. i would suggest we as americans have the right to know whether or not people who want to replace our civilization have significant influence in the obama administration. host: now from florida, frank is
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a republican. caller: hi, mr. speaker. a couple questions. on the budget, a few weeks ago the president was claiming to be lowest-spending president in 40 years, which i found misleading. nobody in the media seems to explain the budgeting process and how misleading that is, based on the date the fiscal year ends and how the first nine months of his presidency, the money that he and nancy pelosi are spending and the stimulus and the omnibus bill all get blamed on president bush. how is the tarp money accounted for in that scenario? when that money is paid back,
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where does that go into the obama numbers? guest: you raised a question i cannot answer. i don't know. but it's a good question about the way in which we keep score. the loans under bush could have been counted as spending by bush and the payment under obama could count as revenues, so it could have a perverse effect. i don't know that it's true and i don't want to mislead our viewers. now you have given me an assignment. i will look into it later on today and i will probably e- mail paul ryan and ask his advice on that. that's worth looking at. imagine it your children convince you they have a baseline of getting a $2 per week increase in their allowance and they deserve an 8$ dollar increase to be even.
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you say i have not gotten a pay raise, so how about i give you $2 and they say why are you cutting me $6? i am doing this without a blackboard, so i hope that our viewers can follow me. this is why i want a complete reform at the congressional budget office, which is an engine of socialism and big government. it has models that say if you don't increase by this amount, it is a cut, even if it is an increase. there's no family or small business in america that has a baseline budget like that. normally if you spent $105 last year and then more this year, that's an increase. but they're saying it is a cut. that's why washington is hard to govern. reforming the cbo is a significant.
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if republicans get control of the senate, i hope they will sit down with house republicans and insist on a director dedicated fundamentally overhauling and changing the congressional budget office. host: what about the current congress and the atmosphere? guest: the speaker has a hard job. they have a president who is different from bill clinton. clinton had been governor of arkansas and he knew that you had to work with the legislature. that's how the constitutional system works. even when bill and i were fighting, we knew that we had to talk to each other. i think obama is the classic college professor. it's his way or no way. i admire john boehner keeping his temper. you have harry reid over here. his dishonesty is breathtaking.
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he has not produced a single person to substantiate. you have a majority leader in the senate you cannot work with and a president you cannot work with. they have been trying to buy their time until the election in hopes of getting a president who will be bipartisan and in hopes of having a senate willing to sit down and work. host: joel is on a line from wisconsin. caller: i wish you were the classic college professor. the country would be in much better shape. i don't know if you are the most intelligent guy in the room, but you articulate the most youpoints. i want to stop about our president. i would really like someone to call this guy on what he is. he is a panderer in chief. giving women free
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contraceptives. hispanics, amnesty. voter registration will now come with your welfare check as well as your comments on the relaxing of the welfare to work program. he changed his stance on gay marriage. environmentalists get the keystone pipeline cut off. the unions get the automobile bailout. those are drops in the bucket of taxpayer money that the president spends in order to cater to these groups. then you have the big banks. they get these bailouts and tarp. the average person on the street who has no retirement, no stocks, no investments -- i have not worked in years, in the residential construction
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business. i don't have to tell you how bad that is. i'm in madison, wisconsin, but i'm from chicago. some of the stuff he does around congress by presidential -- mayor daley in the middle of the night tore up a runway in chicago because he had just moved from a deteriorating neighborhood and moved to the lakefront to one of these fancy condominiums. the airports that were taken off and landing were flying by his window. he and his wife decided that was not the lakefront view they wanted. host: let's get a reaction. guest: it's good to hear from
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someone in wisconsin. callista and i, she is from wisconsin and my son lives in sheboygan. you guys have a great leader. governor thompson is a key leader. let's be clear. barack obama is our president. we want to replace him. we can have arguments. this is one of the responsibilities that he must bear, that there is an institutional presidency that he weakens when he violates the law when it comes to welfare reform. the president should be the number-one upholder of the rule of law. in the law a lot of his behavior and that entire team can be better
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understood if you understand chicago politics. there's a certain amount of that kind of approach, the run over your opponent model, which is not appropriate for the office of president. it does not work nationally. this is too big and complicated a country for that type of politics. host: a number of americans filing for jobless benefits fell -- what do you think about the future? of the job future guest: a number of people blogger in the workforce, this has been the biggest decline in work-force participation since world war ii. the only reason we are not at 13% or 15% unemployment is the number of people who have quit looking. i don't think that's a good sign. i don't see any circumstance under which an obama second term leads to a better economy. there's no evidence that there's anything he would change that would lead to a better economy. people should ask themselves do you want to be stuck at 8% or
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9% unemployment and a declining work force or do you want to try new policies and approaches? host: annie is a democrat in new york. caller: republicans confound me. it would be a better economy is if democrats got a majority back in the senate so that things could get past once again. the republicans are just blocking everything. they are filibustering every single thing that this president has tried to pass. that's why nothing is getting done in congress. how do you square calling mitt romney a liar on face the nation and supporting him now? and with this new welfare to
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work performed thing, mitt romney was one of the governors that requested it. guest: a couple things. those are good questions. first, for the first years of the obama administration, nothing got blocked. the past and $800 billion stimulus and past obamacare, big increases in spending. he promised unemployment would not go above 8%, but it has not gone down below 8%. his first two years have been a failure. they set us on the wrong track, doing the wrong things. romney did not asked, as governor, for these kind of changes. he worked to strengthen the welfare requirements of massachusetts. he sent that letter along with other governors to consider an increase in the work requirement from 50% to 70%, and he supported the increase in
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the work requirement, the exact opposite of the obama positi. host: you have been quoted as saying they need to senator up here who knows what he is doing. so how much more campaigning will you be doing up there? guest: if tommy gets nominated, i want to help him go and when the general. he helped us with welfare reform, where he was a pioneer. he was a pioneer in school choice, working with democrats in milwaukee. he was a remarkable leader in balancing the budget and cutting taxes and creating jobs. he was a very effective secretary of health and human services. i have great respect for governor thompson and he would
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be a very effective u.s. senator. host: he is a former governor. why is it such a tough race right now for him? guest: >> is being outspent by a hedge fund multi millionaire who has not been in the state 24 years. people in wisconsin are tired of politics. they've been through the recall, the election, scott walker's survival, and scott walker is doing a great job. this is the first time they have had an august primary. there's a question about it who is going to turn out. tommy is a great campaigner. calista and i had a great morning with him and crisscrossing the state. host: newt gingrich, member of the house from georgia. thanks for your time. guest: glad to be here. >> here is a look at what is ahead on the c-span networks. at 6:00 p.m. eastern, more speeches from the national press club.
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the 100th anniversary of the girl scouts. tomorrow we were out of our series with mars from billie jean king. that is on c-span2. tonight we will show you talking points editor josh margolin starting at 7:00. tonight, from the recent security forum at the aspen institute gets underway at 8:00 p.m. eastern here on c-span. >> this weekend -- >> i think we have a myth that there are two guys in a dorm room that cracked the code and in all this falls into place. you don't see them all laying on the side of the road not having achieved success. >> former bain capital partner edward conard looks at the
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causes of the to sell look -- the 2008 recession. saturday night at 10 eastern, this weekend on c-span2. >> sunday look for our interview on "hitlerland." >> despite all the time i spent in germany, i had not been a lot of time thinking about what it would have been like to be a correspondent there in the 1920's and 1930's. how would you have operated? what would you have noticed or not noticed, much less, how would you have acted? >> en route nagorski on "q&a". >> next mayor's and public health educators discuss what the call a national epidemic of gun violence among young african-american males in the
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united states. they also talk about a program called cease-fire that, violence in cities. panel includes the mayors of philadelphia, fresno, and baltimore. it is an hour and 25 minutes. >> good morning, everyone. we apologize for being allowed old behind -- for being a live look behind. the one thing we know, especially given the subject matter this morning and with the anticipation of a special guest that everyone here is safe, secure, and nonviolent in their behavior. we are here this morni to discuss a forum on effective approach to reducing violence in our cities all across america.
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we have a great panel and i will be introducing the members very shortly. this particular panel discussion will be discussing unique and effective ways of addressing what i personally believe is one of the most serious problems facing cities all across the united states of america. that, of course, is unfortunately the issue of violence. surly many of you already know that reducing violence is a top priority for me personally. i will be talking a little more about that tomorrow. as mayor of philadelphia and vice president of the u.s. conference of mayors, i have had a particular focus on the issue of violence in my city and cities all across the united states. i will give you a little bit of a picture of the country. in 2010, there were nearly 13,000 murder victims across the
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united states of america. on average, each day, 16 young people between the ages of 10 and 24 are murdered. 86% of them are males. african americans account for 50% of total homicide victims and 85% of those victims are black men. of the offenders caught committing these murders, 16% are black men under the age of 24. it is clear that, unfortunately, we are watching an entire generation of african- american men falling behind. we are watching the next generation of our children grow up without fathers, uncles, and male role models. our committees are crumbling under the weight of drugs,
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illiteracy, and most of all, violence. many are asking the question, what are we doing? at the national level, in addition to my work with the u.s. conference of mayors, i have been working with many others to establish an entity and an organization called the city's united. it is a diverse coalition of mayors mayors working in partnership with a variety of stakeholder organizations to reduce violent deaths among black men and boys. i want to encourage all of our mayors across the u.s. conference of mayors. tomorrow. to join us in this effort. i will be speaking about what cities united is trying to do and what we expect to do in the
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weeks and years to come. in several cities, officials are implementing what is often referred to as the cease fire model. cease fire provides an interdisciplinary public health approach to preventing violence. this began in chicago. is being implemented in several other cities including baltimore, new orleans, and philadelphia. it has been the subject of a rigorous evaluation. it has been demonstrated to show that it is working. in philadelphia, cease fire is one of our tools and a strategy to reduce a violent. working with local partners like temple university, we applied for federal grant to expand our model to enhance our strategy. we are very grateful to robert wood johnson foundation for sponsoring this forum, making it possible for mayors across the country to learn about cease fire. we want all of you to be able to go home with this information. again about cease fire and how it works in a number of cities across america. the conference of mayors looks
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forward to continuing the work with the robert wood johnson foundation to provide information to mayors and others on this issue and other issues affecting our city's most vulnerable residents. let me talk about our panelists. we are pleased to have with us cease fire's fire and executive director. it was gary's pioneering work in chicago which led to the application of public health principles, treating violent as an infectious disease to reduce shootings and killings. a a physician and epidemiologist, gary is a professor at international health at the university of illinois. he'll describe the cease fire model for us. we will hear from baltimore's mayor. this city has the longest running replication of the cease fire model. mayor rawlings-blake serves as
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the vice chair for gangs and its development in our criminal and social justice committee. following here will be jennifer whitehill at the university of washington and has remained an affiliation with the johns hopkins school of public health, where she participated in the evaluation of' ceas fire
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-- replicability. who wrote these remarks? it is not something i usually say in philadelphia. how her efforts are already under way in her city to reduce violence. finally, jane love, team director of the of all mobile populations portfolio of the robert woods johnson foundation. she will discuss the information to provide information to mayors and city is about cease fire and efforts to assist them. we've asked each of our panelists to be brief. that always happens at the u.s. conference of mayors. and annie paddle i have been on, i have ignored that -- on any panel i've been on, i have ignored the request. we want to leave a good amount of time for "q&a" at the end. therefore, you are up. >> thank you very much. good morning, everybody. how is everyone? thank you for coming. i'm going to talk today about
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cease fire health model, the public health model, the theory behind it, how it works. the results we have been getting and also the way ahead. the way i like to start is by thinking about this problem in the context of other problems you have in the history of man that obstructed our progress. this is a painting of plague. we now know it was an infectious disease that centuries ago we were stuck with the situation where people were dying in neighborhoods, people did not want to go into those neighborhoods, and people themselves were blamed. and we frequently had solutions such as this -- a dungeon. the reason we went to solutions like this is because we did not know what was going on there were invisible process is going on it for which we have not
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scientifically not gotten there yet to figure it out. in this case, it was a microorganism inside a flea inside a rat. who knew? i sensed it with respect to this problem of violence that we are now just beginning to understand the invisible brain process these that are going on underneath us that allow us now to move on to a better scientific positioning for developing a more scientific approach to the possibility of putting this problem behind us. in the absence of that, we are still working with the same type of solutions. however, if we begin to look at this in a scientific way, in this city we begin to look at these maps and say, wait a second. here we see geographic clustering. this is absolutely typical of epidemic processes. likewiise if we look at graphs,
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we see curvilinear waves typical of infectious or epidemic processes. one of the reasons why criminologists and economists have difficulty saying violence when upper down because of this or that is because they are looking for a linear responses when this is a more a transmissible type of process. then we all know that violence begets violence but what does that mean? what it means is that there is transmitsiblity. that being exposed to violence as a young person and as a victim or even observing it, you are more likely then to do violence. not everything is transmissible. colds lead to colds. flu leads to flu. but diabetes does not lead to more diabetes. being exposed to someone with a stroke does not lead to you
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having a stroke. this is a transmissible, infectious process. if we proceed and think about this now, think about violence as a scientific issue, in order to develop a scientific approach. we would not only look at its epidemiology but behavior. violence is a behavior, right? what else could it be? we would then be wondering, where did behavior's come from? the majority of behavior is are modeled. what is going on in the brain is unconscious, mirror neuron circuits. what keeps behavior is in place is what we think other people think, what we call social expectation. these kids may not have thought
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about it but they know it is expected of them to fight. just as it is expected of me to wear this. there are social expectations of others and there are scientific pathways in the brain, dopamine pathways that are as powerful as being used for food and sex are also being used for social belonging. isolation shows up as pain. then we have this escalation capability of violence which has to do with dis regulation of the limbic system and hyper vigilance. what you put it -- if you put this together, what you get is infectibility of behavior. there is good news because we know how to reverse epidemic.
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there are only three things you need to do. one, and truck transmission. secondly, find who is likely to transmit, and provide behavior change. and shift the underlying norms. this is how world health reverses epidemics, especially contagious epidemics. to interrupt transmission you need to find somebody who can interrupt the process. we use of violence interrupters for this stage of the system. the second is you have to find who else is a like a person to do of violence, which we can do it in the neighborhood to certain characteristics, and apply some behavior change to professional standards with them and cool them down so they are less likely to transmit. last, work on the underlying social norms that drive the thing, and it becomes less acceptable.
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this is what it looks like on the street. the cease fire health method. interruption has two steps -- detection from sources of information in the community, sources of information elsewhere, including in a hospital. they are trained in how to persuade an interrupt. changing the thinking of -- is the job of outreach workers. and then changing the underlying norm through a number of methods that community managers put into place, including responses to every shooting, using multiple messages, the clergy, a public education campaign. if you put this into place, in this community, shootings over time, easy or rapid reduction. then when the program got doubled, further drops and interrupters added. this is a community that went from 30 killings to three. we have one from 40 to 6.
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these are the first six communities that use this, average 45% drop. 8 more communities, 3 sets of controls. before and after hot spot mapping. shooting densities, before and after. this is a a set of four studies the department of justice provided. these are not one-year results. this is independent evaluation, independently funded, department of justice studies. gang network analysis. five of eight neighborhoods had 100% reduction. the baltimore work will be described. and beside the results, there
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was a relationship between the interruptions and homicide reductions. this is the program that was in the film "the interrupters." is there contagion, is urban violence of virus? the world addition of the economists call this approach that will come to prominence. at the institute of medicine, were reviewed the literature and the research confirming the theoretical basis of this work that it is contagious. we are now working in about 15 cities across the country, including some of these on the panel. we are working in five other countries because the state department and pentagon and others are interested in this, in particular in latin america and elsewhere. this is a scientific approach. it comes at this problem from a different angle. law enforcement does what it does, and this comes at a different angle.
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it performs behavior change and it is validated not only by research but by very detailed independent studies. it allows us to begin to think about this problem differently than bad people and punishment. this is intentionally in medieval script. a new way of thinking about this as acquired behavior, but we need to do a different set of actions. the damage is a safer neighborhood, using an effective approach, adding to law enforcement. i want to highlight changing the norm, is the long-term solution we want in our neighborhoods. these are our challenges. the biggest challenge is sticking with fidelity to the model. if you do the model the way it is, it works. if you are doing something else or saying you are, the block. we can help in these ways. myself and candace cain can help we can help with your city is
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the right place. on changing norms, the hospital intervention which i did not have time to talk about and educating or training on the approach. so these are our contact information. you have information at your seats. thank you very much. [applause] >> thank you, very much. we're not going to hear from mayor stephanie rawlings-blake. >> thank you. i want to thank you for convening this forum on a critical topic. after hearing the doctor, i wanted to go into question and answers, but let's go ahead. we implemented "safe streets"
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back in 2007. safe streetes baltimore is overseen by the city's health department and implemented by a community-based organization and a police post with a high level of violence. the role of the healt department in combating aids or heart disease or cancer is identified and given to us, work with the community to implement them, and monitor the effectiveness. the city's of department has adopted the same approach to combat violence by greeting office of youth violence prevention under the safe street baltimores program. the health department is responsible for managing a site selection process as well as providing technical assistance and intense monitoring to ensure the adherents to the cease fire model.
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the health department implements a public education campaign and develops plans for expansion as well as sustainability. the program currently operates in two of the most violent neighborhoods with two additional neighborhoods to be launched over this next year. eligible areas are predominantly in the top 25% of communities statistical areas with the highest rates of violence and employment and organizations have a history of proven success with the targeted areas. when funding becomes available, community-based organizations within the areas are encouraged to apply through an rfp process. critical for new sites vote -- criteria for site selections include, a demonstrated understanding of the cease fire chicago model, the organizations capacity to implement the program, reputation and credibility within the target area, and experience providing services to
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the targeted population. since dr. whitehill will present on the findings, i will not go into specifics. i would like to discuss what we believe a tribute to our successful results. first off, as any evidence-base program, it is essential the program is implemented to the model. and my following year notes? having staff separate from the site level individuals to monitor model a year and has been critical to our success. we piloted an adaptation with -- to an adjacent police force. once we determined the model was not as effective, we reverted to the standard model. second, the evaluation identified that conflict mediation was key to the reduction in violent incidents.
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it had 3 times as many conflict mediation per month. having the right outreach staff with the right skills is the most critical element to conducting conflict mediation, and it is essential to the initiative. finally, as i know this is a challenging time when it comes to funding, i will share cost information related to the program. baltimore has the distinction of operating the longest- running cease fire replication. since the program's inception and we have never needed to spend -- suspend operations because of lack of funding. we attribute the success of that to being housed within a city agency that has the capacity to obtain funding from abroad range of sources, federal and state grants, as well as foundations and individual donations.
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and the help of dr. slotkine. the costs of implementing the program is approximately $500,000 per site. it pales in comparison to the cost of financial and emotional of us shooting incident. the cease fire model has saved many lives in baltimore. last year, we were down to the lowest homicide rate since 1977. i am pleased with the results and hope to be able to spread in more areas. thank you. >> thank you, mayor. [applause] ms. whitehill, you're next. >> i would not be researcher if i could not get my power point slides up there.
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i'm jennifer whitehill. can you hear me ok? my here on behalf of colleagues at johns hopkins. we completed the independent scientific evaluation of baltimore's safe streets program. what we found in a nutshell is that it had great success in reducing serious violence in the neighborhoods where it was implemented with the most fidelity to the cease fire model. our study focused on the four neighborhoods where the program operated between 2007-2010. these neighborhoods are in green. the first site was in -- park. later that east baltimore site was expanded to two neighborhoods. there was another site in south baltimore in a neighborhood called cherry hill.
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the yellow areas are the other neighborhoods that are in the top 25% for homicide and shootings. that is what we use for the comparison group. we looked at the neighborhoods that bordered the safe streets and neighborhoods to see if there was a spillover and those results to neighboring areas. -- those you see in blue. we obtained data from the baltimore city police department. we measured changes in homicide and a non fatal shootings in the time before and after the program was implemented. we compared that difference to the same time period in a similar high violence neighborhoods and we made the same comparison for border neighborhoods. we want to be sure the result could be exhibited to the program and not something else. we control for the baseline level of violence in the permits, seasonal variations, a drug arrest, weapon arrest and special policing activities that were focused on reducing violent crime.
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this table shows to what we found in terms of the percentage changes relative to the comparison a but. the asterisks indicate the results that were significant. the clearest results were in cherry hill. after the program was implemented, then neighborhood have that 56% decrease in homicide and a 34% decrease in nine fatal -- nonfatal shootings. things are complicated in east baltimore. the three sides shared a management team, and by the time the program got going in madison east end, in that neighborhood it happened that a long-running gang feud erupted in that same month. that was before staff had the opportunity to get into the
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community and influence them. an additional complication is that some of the staff resources were directed away towards that situation in madison east end. some of the staff resources from the park were directed away towards that situation in madison east end. but we did find the park had a 53% reduction in homicide during the month when the staff was occupied in another area. we did not see a reduction in homicides but a 34% reduction in non fatal shooting. while those results with the primary outcome for an evaluation, we wanted to see at the program did anything to change the social norms about using gun violence to settle a dispute. that is the theory behind this program. we undertook an anonymous street survey of young men in the park, a dented the 18-24 age group and a similar neighborhood that did not get the program. on our survey, the young men indicated how likely they would be to use a gun in different
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scenarios that are considered, and sparks for gun incident. in mcelderry, the young men were likely to express little or nor -- or no support. be found this model can be replicated affectively and can lead to impress the reductions in shootings. it is important model be implemented with high fidelity. there is evidence to support the fact that cease fire changes social mores about violence. that is the short and sweet of it. i am happy to take any questions later. [applause] >> thank you. thank you for your leadership on this issue. i enjoy working with you on the city's united. we tend to get into these
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meetings in language gets a antiseptic. i will change that. i will walk you through some national statistics. 13,000 people were killed on the streets of america last year. let's stop on that for a second. 13,000 people were killed on the streets of america last year. what you have to compare that to determine whether or not that is okay. how many people were killed in the first or second iraq war or in afghanistan? 13,000 people every year for the last 10 years dwarfs that number. we spent $1 trillion prosecuting those wars but the amount of money be spent on protecting american citizens on the streets of america is the minimus in comparison.
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of those 13,000 people killed on the streets, 50% of them were young african-american men between 16 and 24. the african-american population is around 12%. run those numbers in your head and ask yourself what it means. young black men are being slaughtered on the streets of america. that is what that means. some people will think that is a little too harsh so let me prove my point to you. my city, new orleans, has about 360,000 people. we had 199 murders last year. which puts our per capita murder rate at 10 times the national average. we have the worst problem as it relates to murder. there is a distinction between violence and murder. from a public health perspective, we ought to see it that way but the statistics in new orleans are similar to those we have seen in
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philadelphia, new york, baltimore, everywhere else. in certain neighborhoods in our cities, you have young man being killed at sometimes 100 times the rate of the national average. this is a national epidemic. it is not ok. we have to state that. the lives of young african- american men are really important. we have to do something to stop the carnage on the streets of america. there is a school in new orleans where five young men that coincidently went to the school got killed within four or five months of each other. they were not related from what we could tell but they were in the same area. it was more likely for a kit that would to this high school to get killed then a soldier in afghanistan protecting our freedom. those are catastrophic numbers. they cry out to us as a nation to fix. the first thing we have to do is recognize that.
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one of the things that the mayor and i have struggled about is what makes people stand up? what makes people stop? i will say two things that might upset you but that is what we are here to do. mayor mike has said a number of times that if the ku klux klan killed 200 african-american men on the streets of america, they would have hell to pay. my wife heard a report on the radio. a man was talking about chicago. this guy who was a caucasian said it 53 white people got shot in chicago over the weekend, the president would
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stop what he's doing, call out the national guard. basically what you have is a little racial discontent with the african-american community is saying if he did not pay attention, we will not pay attention and the white community says if you are not paying attention, we will not pay attention. it all goes down to is not my fault. here is the other thing we have to get our hands around. not everybody is to blame but we are all responsible. if we focus on the problem and put the right resources behind it and analyze the right way, i think we can solve the problem but if it is something we do not think is a major problem, if we do not think it is important, we will not put the resources, the time and the organization behind try to understand it. this is a very deep problem. in new orleans, 10 times the national average, we went back and looked at it. people said you are not doing a good enough job. there is something wrong with
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your police chief. there is something about the way you comb your hair. [laughter] i agree with that. so we went back and look at the data and we found -- 1979-1980. ronald reagan, alice cooper, larry bird. we had an average of two and 41 murders every year on and on. some years got better, some years got worse. when you went back and looked at the average, this tells you this is a very deeply rooted problem, that can only be dealt with from seeing it as a public health epidemic. the cease-fire model is built on an idea that is exactly right. it is one of many tools that we have to use but unless we recognize that it is deeply rooted in a lot of serious things, we are not going to get there. the doctor used the word transmissible. i want to tell you a brief
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story. last week in new orleans, there was a birthday party for a nine-year old boy taking place about 30 seconds from city hall in a residential neighborhood. three young men were driving down the street and saw somebody they had been looking for on this porch. they got out of their car and one of them took an ak47 and sprayed the neighborhood. when he finished spring the neighborhood, the cousin of the nine-year old at her guts blown out on that porch. the nine-year old got clipped. a bullet traveled three blocks down the road and hit a mother of three young boys right in the head and killed her instantly. as you can imagine, a very traumatic event for everybody that's all that, everybody that went through that.
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the funeral was held and then we had in new orleans a repass. everybody comes back to the house and the sit on neutral ground. we were just having a fellowship with the family. walking towards me were two people that i recognized. one of them was about a 40- year-old african-american male and next to him was an african- american female. as i walked up to him, i recognized him. this man was the father of a young african-american boy who witnessed the death of a two- year old three months earlier. she was gunned down in the courtyard of her home for 20 other kids were. the lady next to him says you do not remember me, do you? she said i am jeremy's mother, a two-year old who had been shot months before that got
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caught in a drive-by. these two people work together and the son of young african- american man knew brianna. this little boy himself saw and knew three people who were 5 or younger that got killed. the transmission of that and the complexity of that over a long period of time is something we all ought to stop about and say we have to find a way to get into that and to stop that. we will not be able to do this if the nation is not called to purpose on this issue. i do not want to hear from congress that they do not have enough money to do this. the new york times reported last week that the united states of america spent $8 billion nation-building in standing up police department in iraq and afghanistan.
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that may have been unnecessary expenditure but it is hard for me to believe and understand as a mayor of a major american city that the point of that is to secure our homeland by helping their security forces be secure, that we cannot find a way to bring that money full circle in partnership with federal, state, and local governments so we do not have to rely on people like that robert wood johnson foundation to do for the people of america what we should do ourselves. if the identify it, and recall the nation to purpose on it and say it is important to save the lives of young african- american, we can. we know that it is fixable. it takes time, resources, money. we have a cease-fire in new orleans. i think it is a great model. these are bright lights. it is one of many things. we have to start with saying is
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a national epidemic, we will not tolerate it. thank you very much. [applause] >> now you know why he is my partner. mayor ashley swearengin. >> thank you very much. i am ready to go now. mayor, well done. i want to share a few things with you from our experience in fresno. we are not implementing this cease-fire program that has been presented this morning in its entirety but there are elements that we have been able to incorporate from a law enforcement perspective. i want to say that i am very compelled by the other elements that were we did we are missing in fresno. i am eager to see how we can raise those pieces up the in our community. i am extremely encouraged by what i see happening in our
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community. people standing up and saying enough is enough. it is coming from moms and dads and grandparents. we have an organization called the fresno st. states. it was brought together by seven african-american pastors who knew each other. this gets to the point of the epidemic -- at a particular family event, one of the pastors lost his grandson in an incident of violence. a similar situation as to that which mayor mitch described. they were gathered for the funeral. the family was there. they were grieving, going through the normal processes and they realized they were running out of some ice and milk.
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so they sent two other grand kids down the street to the neighborhood store to get a few items. as those children were walking to the corner store, one of them was gunned down as the result of gang violence and unintentional crossfire that this particular child caught. needless to say, this series of events sparked what it's become a community revolution and transformation with many of these african-american grandfathers' coming together saying we cannot live like this anymore. i had a mother in my office whose son was going through a criminal justice process and was involved in gang activity. she relayed to me that all the moms were friends in this particular rival gang situation. she could name all of these kids moms and said we were
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friends in high school and our sons are now killing each other. i certainly share the passion that you see from the other terrific leaders and other communities and understanding the importance of addressing this. what has been going on in fresno from law enforcement perspective, this is an important element and i certainly appreciate that it is not the fall sick -- the focus in systemic solution but it is extremely important that our law enforcement agencies are working in coordination with one another. sometimes the tools we do have are not as strategically deployed as they can be. we have to fix that problem. we have them working with david kennedy out of the boston area of cease-fire and have begun to line every level of law- enforcement to target the 10% -- those who are committing 90% of the violence in fresno.
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the signature feature of this particular program is the call in. you invite these 10% people to come in. they hear from law enforcement at the local, state, federal level and from former game members and a trauma nurse or and e.r. doctor. people listen the same message which is the violence must stop. the combined message of you have to stop. if you do not, he will be locked away for many years. if you choose to stop, there are a range of resources available to get you out of the lifestyle you are in now. after the law enforcement panel, there is a group of service providers to meet with the individuals and connects them with services in an attempt
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to help them begin the process of exiting the gang activity they are involved in. so far, we have been doing this for the last two years and we had 315 call in. of those, only five have recommitted a federal violent act. there has been a tremendous impact on jarring people's attention and we have seen a tremendous reduction in violence. what i am inspired by this morning is the idea of raising up the interrupters. this probably sounds like the hardest thing to implement and i'm curious to hear from others on the panel how you go about finding people to be effective in that capacity. what we have experienced in fresno is that -- it is difficult to find those with the credibility needed to fill that function. those who are willing almost upon admitting they are willing to do it, they become less
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effective. it is difficult to get the credibility they need. i am anxious to learn more about that and see that added in. i am also really curious about working with hospitals and finding out -- that is so clearly the right spot to intervene. we typically have police officers all over the place when these violence -- violent acts happen but we do not necessarily have the community response that goes along with that. i am anxious to learn more about that. thank you. >> mayor ashley swearengin, thank you very much. we will hear now from jane lowe. >> thank you very much. i want to thank both mayor nutter and rawlings-blake who are replicating the replication of the day who are replicating the cease-fire model.
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and the new insight that reminds us there are many different pathways here that we need to take to come together and solve this problem. i want to put forward the importance of using effective solutions to solve this problem of gun violence in american cities. you might wonder why the largest health care system in the united states -- why we have an interest in reducing gun violence. it seems like this might be better left with law enforcement and criminal justice. but for us, we regard violence as a pressing public health issue that strikes at the heart of the community and well-being of individual families and whole communities.
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it disproportionately affects low income communities and vulnerable populations and as you have heard from everyone here, the young men of our cities. these are areas where the foundation has always placed very special emphasis. it goes without saying that gun violence, the toll of gun violence, is very clear. we should back kid ourselves about this happening just in one neighborhood -- we should not kid ourselves about this happening just in one neighborhood. what is happening all across america affect all of us and we need to remember that whether we like it or not, we are all very deeply interconnected. clearly you have heard from gary and others about the contagion of violence.
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we know from other work of their doing around behavior and neuroscience and the evidence that is rapidly emerging around brains and brain science, that this is an important issue. it is no exaggeration to say that gun violence is an epidemic. i assume that nothing commands a retention more than a need as homicide as the lead story in your morning paper when you go to read it. it is also clear and this is where the neuroscience comes in, that the physical and mental toll that takes place for people is not just among those who are directly affected or involved in acts of violence. in these neighborhoods, the mayor provided examples of where people have been exposed to violence and how the chronic
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instability affect people's lives. we know that when a child is exposed to violence, it has very lasting impact on their lives. this is what in the parlance of the science is called toxic strikes -- toxic stress. it can rewire a child's brain so that they are less likely to succeed in school or be physically and emotionally healthy. that creates greater risk for disease and disadvantaged. the evidence for how and why to prevent the epidemic of violence. a cease-fire is a public health approach that seeks to interrupt the spread of violence much as the same way as gary described the spread of infectious diseases.
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the foundation supports the cease-fire model to combat environments because it works. that was our hypothesis 10 years ago when we began our investment and since then, the foundation has committed nearly $10 million to develop tests and spread the model and tell the stories you're hearing today. our most recent investment was to begin to develop a business plan and strengthen the organizational capacity for replication and provide the technical assistance that is available to all of you across the country to help replicate this model. we know that the technical assistance is there in truth because of mayors like those who are with us today. people were open to different solutions. one that would sometimes have to be explained to a skeptical
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public but this idea may to bottom line economic sense because gun violence undermines the very fabric of life and opportunity in a community. it is a cost strain through lost wages, no job creating investment, and exceptionally high use of police and emergency room services. as dr. gary slutkin, if you can stem the violence, it makes communities healthy and strengthens them in ways that are fundamental to health and vitality. investments in schools, housing, and so on. while we have committed significant amounts of the cease-fire model, the reality is that any philanthropic resources can tackle such a vast problem are entirely insufficient. it is not realistic to think we will support this work indefinitely.
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other partners, including u.s. mayors, need to come on board based on the evidence and the track record of success, and helps spread a novel model that works. we can do this together. we do not want to wait any longer. we cannot afford to watch any longer because the payouts are enormous. fewer shootings and killings, revitalize neighborhoods, and fundamentally healthier future for the people and communities you lead is division and is the goal. thank you very much. [applause] >> with a great panel. we want to thank all of our panelists for their presentations on this very important topic. we want to open the floor to the mayor's in the room.
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we have in philadelphia shown a movie called "the interrupters"" we have had a number of showings of this film. it is very powerful, very compelling, but also very clearly tells a story about what is really going on on the street. it was made in chicago. you could watch the movie, close your eyes for a few minutes and you can be in any city in the united states. we have shown in a number of times and planned to show its during the course of the next school year in a variety of places across philadelphia. with that, mayors in the room, if there are questions, comments, concerns, raise your hands and we will get you.
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>> thank you. quick question. i appreciate this model. my name is michael hancock from colorado. we were just talking here. this model makes sense. we have seen it work in a lot of ways. someone live up a cigarette in this room, we would freak out. that is the model you have talked about. we have changed the norm. one of the things i have trouble with regarding this by the behavior is the psychological long-term damage that has been done, particularly with african-american males. the question is how do we begin to reverse that? want to get beyond making this an unacceptable norm to carry guns, have it in your possession, -- the question i want to know is what is the next step?
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there is something psychological and challenging when an african-american boy or any young man can point a gun at another young boy that looks like them and say it is ok to take their life. i'm wondering if some of the experts that dealt with the program can comment on that because i think that has to be the next logical step in combat in this challenge and disease that pervades our neighborhoods. >> before you answer, but to give you another statistic. in new orleans, 88% of the young men actually know each other. >> we can add to that. not only do they know each other more often than not, but on any given week, on a monday, you can have a person who is a perpetrator encased in some criminal activity and by
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friday, that same person is a victim. most of the folks involved in criminal activity, violent crime, in the 70%-80% percentile range have criminal records, multiple arrests. they are all in the game. the overwhelming majority of violent crime in most cities in america is committed by a relatively small group of people chasing each other around. in many instances, some of them have been shot multiple times and are survivors. you get a sense that there is all this criminal activity going on and it is not random. these folks all know each other. this week's shooting is about something that happened to weeks ago with somebody else.
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brother, cousin, and that you, friend, my man, my boy, whatever the case may be. and they are chasing each other around. >> let me remind anyone that myself and candace, will be here after the session. i will be here all day today if anyone wants to contact me. the business of transmissible with the mayor has correctly led -- it is not a metaphor anymore. the science of this is really solid. it really is infectious. we really have fundamentally misdiagnosed this problem.
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it is a very important and central concept that we have been mistreating because we had misdiagnosed it. we need more funds but my original diagnosis which was people deny care enough or that there was not enough money in it is not the whole thing. it is really that we have not been applying the right approach is. malaria was blocked for ever. until we came up with these. this problem has been fundamentally misdiagnosed and with respect to the issue of the business of trauma, it is an effect and cause of this. it is important to realize that
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severe punishment, and threats of punishment, as if everyone had not had enough of that already. you think the african-american male population has not been threatened enough? it has negative consequences on the brain and cause of war trauma. and more deregulation. besides all that, the adolescent brain as we now understand it, is not a consequence driven. the frontal lobe is not yet prone. they are not worrying about the consequences. when we said they do not care, they are wired not to care. adolescents are wired to go out into the world because there are supposed to protect things and do things and change the world.
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what they care about is what their friends think. that is the way we are evolutionary wired. furthermore, they need risk. they need risks to be normal, to feel normal. that is the normal adolescence. the way that we see this in terms of using the science is that this is three steps. to reduce the trauma, we have to begin to reduce the trauma that is happening which means that we have to reduce the shootings as fast as we can which is what the interruption part does. this method its results when you use the model in the first six
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to 12 months. point two shifts the norm. then we have to put into place some kind of treatment. professionalized mental-health care for people who have been repeated the traumatized. we are training the workers themselves to help others managed. there are methods for that that we did not talk about. but there are new interventions that we need to put into place to scale. we are not being honest if we are just treating the trauma and not stopping the cause which is the shootings. and the aggressive other stuff going on. >> i want to say one word about this, peace and for the mayor of denver.
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there is a physician in philadelphia at the drexel school named john rich who is also a public health doctor who is working very hard on these issues of the impact of trauma on young men. i would discourage you to take a look at his work. it is focused on trauma enforced care. i will also say that on the philanthropic community now, there is a surge of interest and activity happening around address in the heat -- the needs of young men of color in this country. robert wood johnson foundation we at johnson will launch a program this fall that focuses on young men of color in high
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school. it has to not only deal with this terrible issue of violence but goes back upstream.
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where are the structural barriers? we're focused very much on the issue of violence. it is big and it is powerful. we also have to remember that the solutions lie upstream as well. it is very important that have public health, education, employment, the business community, all of us have a stake in making the lives of our young people, whether they are young men of color, young women, better. so we have to think about this in -- as big intersecting circles and work with in our community to gather up all the organizations that are one way or another coming at this problem from different points of view. >> to follow up on interruption and transmission. when you get upstream on this thing, let me bring this home to you. this little five-year old girl was killed was buried at the same place where a 16-year-old boy was killed three months earlier. two days after her funeral, i hosted a free lunch program in that same church. we are now serving more meles but we bought those kids in for breakfast.
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i had a table, 23 5-year-olds. i could not help but look at them and think where you going to be? we talked about these kids knowing each other and killing each other. one of the great dangers is you hear people say i cannot touch that, that is not me. let me tell you something, they were not always thugs. one day they were that five- year old eating that free breakfast. on the issue of interruption, if we cannot change what happens if we do not change what we are doing now and interrupt, what happens between five and 16 for those young men?
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cease-fire is like putting a plug in the dike. it is like taking the kids that are there are ready and saying, stop what you are doing so that we do not have that problem for the same kids. >> two quick questions -- is this power point available? question two, in our city, we are having some challenges with witnesses bidding lockjaw. can you share with us how to deal -- >> lockjaw. >> silence, locked car -- that is a crude term, i am sorry. but you get it. could you help us understand how you were dealing with this in your respective cities? i appreciate that. >> there has been this -- on the
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first question i am sure he would make his power point available. in philadelphia, we certainly combat -- we do not call it lockjaw. it is referred to as no snitching. witness intimidation. we have had a couple of bad situations. in many instances, folks -- generally a folks in many instances in the same neighborhood, everybody knows everybody. family, friends, friends of friends, associates -- all the rest that goes with it. some -- folks in the neighborhood know who did what. there is no big mystery.
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all these folks talk. they could not keep their mouth shut if their lives depended on it. unfortunately, in many instances they then will not call the police. they do not want to deal with that system, that is the man, whatever the case may be. we will deal with this ourselves. so when you go back to the work and dr. slutkin's others, you have to cool where the one who got in and the boys show up and say we are going to get so and so. there's all kind of inappropriate language not for a writ -- not appropriate for c-span3 you have to kill that out immediately. that is where boots on the ground really do make a difference and having people in the neighborhood who are prepared to stand up and
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stepped-up is what this is really all about. so we do have in many instances folks stepping forward. we put in philadelphia a couple of months ago the 100 most wanted folks up on the city's cable access channel and website. within two weeks, 21 of those folks have either been arrested, turned themselves in or we got information on where they were three people really do want -- everybody was a safe community ultimately. we have some folks out there or not and aged in -- not engaged in the common things we might be but we have to provide them an opportunity. using social media, texting, anonymous opportunities to give information and get that stuff out so that we can do our job.
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i think the no snitching attitude continues to be a major challenge but we have to give people a sense of hope that it will be protected and not be subject to retaliation. >> good morning. i am mayor of hempstead, new york. we are trying to implement a cease-fire. how do you determine interrupters? how do you screen them for that? >> the people that work with you on the cease-fire? >> in baltimore, it is people who have been in the game. when i was talking about it
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earlier, choosing the right individuals -- that is out of my lane. i know the work of it. i can explain it but i would not be speaking with any credibility on the streets in some of these neighborhoods. they need people who have been where they have been. the benefit of that is when you get the right person, you are able to get the results. the challenge is making sure that person is out of the game. >> i want to add to this because there are so many mayors here. our experience in watching cities try to do this on their own is that ordinarily, it is not so exactly likely that people are going to be selecting the right people on their own. we have a lot of experience in helping in this. there are criteria for this and there's research to be done in
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the neighborhood on this is because you need to determine what is actually going on a debt of this neighborhood right now? are there five groups, three groups? is it random stuff? what is going on here? and then who do we need to hire to interact with these various groups or whatever who knows them? that point by point, you have to go through a systematic process of determining who has that rolodex, and who was both of his or her feet on this side of the line now. not a toenail over there. and they are hungry to do the work and they can do the work. so there -- and they are not random.
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they have to be part of a disease control system being supervised with monitoring and support and training. there is a whole training program i did i get into for interrupters so they can do persuasion, and behavior training and norman chains. we are -- and norm change. they need to be the right person and properly trained. >> he should get in touch with you. >> right. >> that and the thing the bottom line. if you other mayors. -- that ends up being the bottom line. a few other mayors. >> can you talk about the intimation -- implementation process -- where to start? how long it takes? >> let's get mayor stephanie rawlings-blake.
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>> it was really a blueprint for the way we handled it. first you have to identify those areas. we do this all the time with our cities. we identify where we have neighbors that have historic of violence. you have to identify those intense dots on the map. after you do that, you have to make sure that in those areas, one of the areas we first talked about, mclelderry park, there was strong community groups there that wanted different. you have to have all those things. you have to have the unfortunate part, the violence, and the community group that wants to do something and that is identified with you. then you can later on the work of identifying the potential interrupters. i would encourage anyone that is interested to learn from the
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mistakes of other cities which is it is not something -- you cannot take the power point and do it. you need to work with the group to make sure you are sticking to the model. we are talking about a public health issue. the same way you cannot listen to a lecture from a doctor and then start diagnosing people. you have to work with the professionals that develop the program to get the results that you want. it is only through strict adherence to the model that we're getting the results. you have to figure out in your city how you can get that strict adherence. we tried different ways. it is work with health department in the lead of the cease-fire method that was able to make sure we were sticking with the model. >> we are going to take a couple questions.
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we are a little over our time but this is obviously a very serious discussion. i know there are other activities going on. i want to follow up on something that mayor andrew referenced. we are looking at this from a national perspective. you might want to take this down. on september 11th, 2001, 2977 were killed. a horrific attack on the united states of america and there was an incredible response to that. last year, there were five frigid 15 homicides in new york city. 63 in boston. 108 in washington, d.c. 324 in philly. 298 in los angeles.
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199 in new orleans. 433 in chicago. 344 in detroit. 91 in newark. 147 in memphis. the top five cities in the united states and eight others. it was 2981. in 13 cities last year. even the crime has generally been going down, if you want to know how many people in those 13 cities total were killed over the last 10 years, multiplied by 10 to read what happened as a result of 9/11? the government created a cabinet level position, as secretary of homeland security. unless you're from orlando, everyone of you in the last day or so has not experienced with
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the tsa, you almost have to take your clothes off to get on an airplane. as long as you do not miss your flight, it is cool. i said in a speech in tallahassee, the tsa -- on our streets what we need is the walking around security administration. we need to be safe on our cities and states, flying anywhere in the united states or around the world. we changed security procedures for how you fly in the world as a result of that her thick incident on monday -- as a result of that horrific incident on one day.
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last year, in 13 cities more people were killed and were killed and one day in that perfect event -- a horrific event. on. next question. >> i appreciate all of the sharing your thoughts on the issue. my question for you is -- unfortunately for all of us, violent crime is not just a big city issue. it is in every city issue. for communities of less than 50,000, can this program work? >> we are working with some smaller communities, including other communities in illinois. it works best when there is a serious problem. that is when it is most effective and should be used. >> last question.
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>> good morning. i am from gary, indiana. i know that my team has been talking to dr. gary slutkin. there are a lot of similarities. i have been involved with the drug movement for about 10 years. there are a lot of similarities in terms of changing the norm and other aspects of the ceasefire movement. my question is in terms of your colleagues and -- in the medical field, and law that the movement in the drug analysis and terms of drug addiction as a disease, came as a result of the medical world. are you having that same success among your colleagues, the physicians, to look at violence as a public health issue? i think that the more of them that do, the more success we will have in this area.
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my other question is how involved is the faith community in terms of getting -- of being involved in the cease-fire initiatives that are under way? i heard in fresno they actually started your program but how involved in the community in terms of what is happening with cease-fires? >> i will take the first part of this. i am glad you're here. we hope to be working with you and would love to be. we are aware of the problems there. the health community needs to be much more involved. the health of directors, the public health departments really need to begin to step up. they have not known until this model that there was a place for them on this serious violence. by convention, they have left
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that to others who control the resources in this issue but -- and they have been involved in work related to younger children. so there is a place for them now. we need the health directors to help the department of your cities to begin to step up, as baltimore has, to begin to take a very active role. not only is there a place for them by the face of this issue needs to change. to a health matters about -- so that more effective treatments can be had supplied or added to what else is there. >> it has been a key component of what we have been doing in
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fresno. we have got a network of churches throughout the city that have organized themselves so we can cover each geography of the city with various rate based organizations. we have different denominations and different religions that come together. in addition to community prevention outreach work, our police department initiated a partnership in the historically most dangerous part of the city, south west fresno. they have 50 different state based nonprofit that meet every week with the police department and stage a range of programs and outreach year-round. it started in south west fresno. now they are moving to south east and central fresno. they are very small churches. it does not have to be a mega church. most churches are very small but as they come together, they are very impact fall and they
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have the relationships that are needed with that grandmothers and grandfathers and the guardians and others involved in the lives of the people we're trying to impact. >> i am getting this serious signal about -- this has been a most engaging conversation. i want to thank all of our panelists and mentioned to the mayors that it is important -- as important as boots are on the ground, we need to continue to advocate for and push for support from our federal partners. the cops program is very important. all across the united states. make sure that we have our forces heard as mayors and community leaders with regard to law-enforcement. our police department, as good as any of them are, cannot and will not be the only answer to
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this particular challenge. this is a community-based problem, community based solutions. some of the activities that you hear from gary and jennifer and mayor stephanie rawlings-blake and ashley swearengin are on the front lines of making america and our cities the safe place we want. why don't we give our panelists and a round of applause? [applause] thank you very much. [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2012] >> more road to the white house coverage coming up as the democratic national convention platform committee meets. will be live from downtown detroit as committee members work on the platform that will be voted on by delegates at the national convention in september. our coverage gets underway at
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9:30 a.m. eastern, saturday, on c-span. ahead of this year's conventions, what campaign speeches, past platform meetings, and more at c- >> i do not envy the republican party. they squelch debate -- we welcome it. they deny differences -- we bridge them. they are uniform -- we are united. [applause] the choices are not just between two different personalities or to ban political parties -- they are between two different visions of the future, two fundamentally different ways of governing. their government of pessimism, fear, and limits, or hours of
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hope, confidence, and growth. >> c-span has aired every minute of every major party conventions since 1984. this year, watch the conventions live on c-span, starting monday august 27. >> earlier today, nasa scientists held a briefing to provide the latest update on the mars rover curiosity. they released the first 360 degree interview from the crater where the rover landed. they told reporters that curiosity has executed all planned activities successfully. the rover landed on the martian surface monday morning. it is on a two-year mission to study whether the crater ever had conditions favorable for microbial life. from pasadena, california, this is 35 minutes. >> welcome to nasa's jet propulsion laboratory.
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the rover has just completed its activities. it has sent us back postcards of another picture-perfect day on mars. here to tell us about that and with an update on activities, we have michael watkins, the mission manager from the jet propulsion laboratory. michael malin, principal investigator for the camera from san diego. don sumner, a team member from the university of california, davis. andy mishkin, integrated chief from jpl. doug ellison, visualization producer at jpl. we will begin with michael watkins. >> good morning.
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another fantastic day on mars -- curiosity continues to be paved basically flawlessly. we executed all the planned activities successfully yesterday. it is a good time for me to point out that the team operating curiosity is also performing flawlessly. completing all planned activities as well. it is really just a great day all around. the activities consist of a couple of things. we are about to do -- upgrade our software on the rover. just like we upgrade our operating system on your home computer or a laptop or something -- we will do the same thing. we will have a new flight software that is optimized for service. we landed with one optimized for landing. that does not have to operate the arm and all that. the surface is not have to land the vehicle. we want to switch to this new software that is optimized for service operations. we will do that starting tomorrow.
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-- the day after tomorrow, sorry. we'll start that activity. we will do preparation for that activity. we will check out the flight computer and make sure it looks fine. we also have files to get ready for the flight suffer transition. the other thing to do is check out more of our instruments to do more checks on them on the remaining instruments. we checked out the apxs and others -- they ball past successfully. they are in great shape. nothing showed up -- no anomalies showed up in any of those tests. we also took a whole lot of imagery around us. we took a 360 degree panorama using the camera around the river. we looked back at ourselves and to close up of the deck.
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we did a 360 degree panorama in color. let me start by showing you some of those images. this is our deck pan. we are zooming in here. you can see that that is the rad instrument. you can see some of these large pebbles on the surface. those were kicked up by the landing. the engines actually pushed up some of these gravel up to 1 centimeter in size on top of the rover. this was no problem for operation. we do remove the black in here -- the pit -- around, but we can easily go over these or go on top of them. we do not see any operational
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constrained by that being there, but it is a little bit unexpected. the team, when they analyzed the landing, they did not think it would take up stuff this large. they are looking off -- at that. maybe these are lighter materials than they expected. they have nothing to do now -- they need a problem to go start working on, so this is something for them to do. in the nation, we do not see any action -- impact on this on our instruments. so we think that all of that is in pretty good shape. let's go to the next slide. this is just kind of a context shot here. you see the antenna -- that is the hex 7 often pointed up to the side. the little things sticking up is the low-gain antenna. you can see the rim of the crater in the distance. we also acquired some color
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panels of this area. mike will talk about those. >> here i am again. i am wearing another, different hat this time -- i am the principal investigator of the camera. we got a 360 degree panorama into the sequence from yesterday. we got our thumbnails back. i need to tell you -- the full- frames are now stored inside the camera. we do havewe need to get those o the rover's memory to bring them home. this is the last sol until after the software activity goes through to get them cued up. we look you up a few of the full-resolution images.
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these are thumbnails. he should remember back a couple sols ago when i showed you the thumbnail of that heat shield, and i faded that and the full resolution. that is the difference you should expect to see between what i will show you now and what we will see in the full- resolution frames. this is the full 360 panorama. it is the color as it was transmitted except it was brightened up. we see in that area to the right the impact or the plume the impact site of the rocket plumes. we are panning across the base of mount sharp. we see a shadow of the hardware on the river itself. we zoom in because there is a big gap of places we did take pictures of, so this gives you a better view of the terror of
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images. it is a slightly different color, i low light layer as we saw and then hazcam. we will zoom in and this is the area that was discussed, the last time i was here, talking about bedrock and picking up material but the rocket plumes. we will now show you the full mosul make again and zoom back to the other plumes. we will -- you can see the plumes are a light tone. this could be a contaminant. this is a very low-resolution image. there are 130 pixels in here. it took one hour and six minutes to get the mosaic.
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>> we have these beautiful images, and mike did a nice job of describing the interesting features. we are looking forward to the full resolution images. we can also see the main reason we chose gale as a landing site, so if i could have the first slide. we have -- this is a navcam jose, and in the upper right, you can see the main target area of where we want to go and why it was chosen. in the hills, between 1009200 degrees at the top, you see these beautiful knolls and layered rocks, and those players are what is recording the history in the crater. this is one of the reasons we chose gale crater.
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we can see those in the distance from where we are. it is very exciting to think but it ising theire, quite a ways away. we also want to be able to take the science we can do where we landed and integrate that into the mission as well. next slide. we are coordinating with others a mapping effort, so you can see the landing and lips outlined in red, and we have divided the area up into about 1 mile by 1 mile squares. we had the science team map each quad. it is mapping out the different textures you can see in the images, and mapping the boundaries between those textures.
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if we do that for geology on earth, to mark where different types of rocks are outlined. curiosity landed in the quad 51, which is one of the ones i snapped. i am sure that was intentional, by the navigation teamed. what the science team is now doing is we have these individual maps and we integrated them to get the broader picture. also investigating the rocks and the craters and patterns around where curiosity is now. we will use this map to find a path from where we landed to the main target at the base of mount sharp, which is -- where we landed. we will drive on the northwest side of the dunes, but on the way we will have interesting
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geology to look loat. the team will balance investigations on our drive, but also still get to the base of mount sharp. the next slide, this is squad 51, where curiosity plan that, and you can tell by looking at this image that we have several different textures of rocks and surfaces in this. the team is focused on what is the key observations we can make here that will tell us about our landing site, and then you will go from those and choose a path to the base of mount sharp, doing the best science weekend along the way, but also keeping our eyes that people layered rock at the base of mount sharp. >> while you were hearing about these great results coming back
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and what they mean, i'm here not to talk about those, but talk about what we're doing all day in our mission operations in order to enable getting those results back. my team is the team that does the command sequencing and integrates things coming from the science team. it is a challenging issue to actually do the operations because we cannot joystick the rover due to a time delay. we have a highly resource- constraint vehicle, and the amount of power we are getting from the rtg is basically a little bit more than you need the power and 100-watt light bulb, we need to deal with the data volume and make sure we can fix the date that that we get into our next available opportunity to get the debt down through our orbiter relays.
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in addition we have to make sure that we can actually achieve what we want within the time that is available to the roper because it can only do things so quickly and get that done in time for that downlink pit we can only communicate with the rover few times per marchand day, and we have to fit those things and. -- martian day, we have to fit those things in. we have to manage the activities that the members of the teams want to do so that we do not drive to point the mast in one direction at the same time we want to be pointing to take engineering camera images. there are hundreds of rules we need to manage and that takes time. our solution to dealing with the challenges, effectively writing a software program every day that has to run the first time when we send it out to the vehicle that is going to operate
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on to tell the road for what it is going to do, over the next day, and that involves a combined team of engineers and scientists who are working together of the course of 16 hours, basically every martian sol. if i could get the graphics, this is a brief summary of our process, and one key point, all of that is going on is when the rover is asleep. that is why i call it the overnight timeline from the standpoint of the rover, where do all the work when it is not doing much activity except for maybe brief way cups for nighttime operations. in the process we have the starting point and the timeline where we have one or another order pass bringing down data from the rover possibly afternoon and getting back on
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the ground, which has some data volume that will be verary. we produce the products in order to be able to see the images and the other telemetry, and then at the engineering team and sides think are assessing and making sure the rover is healthy over the course of a few hours and looking at the results so we can decide what we want to do and what the steps are for the sol that will fall. at that point, we end up in a meeting where we address those items and bring the key issues to the fore, and that involves about 20 folks at that point. in parallel, science and engineering teams look at the activities that need to be constructed into a coherent plan for the coherent -- for the next sol.
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then we will review that, about 40 people, and we are ruthlessly sticking to the timeline because all this is leading to our command opportunity. after having that plan, we turned this into command sequences, which effectively is this software of up to maybe a thousand commands that would be accepted -- executed that will will doat the marchrover over the next day. then we approve that add up link it. you can see that deadline. we have that deadline when we have the communications opportunity, because that is when we need to tell the rover what we want it to do, and it operates on its own until it can communicate back in the afternoon the result of what has
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happened. that is the basic cycle that keeps over 100 people busy over that 16-hour time line and running a sprint everyday to make sure that we can meet that mark and keep the vehicle productive and gathering science. i will turn it over to doug. >> exactly a week i go i was here introducing you to spacecraft that are exploring the solar system, and the models made for curiosity's entry and dissent landing. i do not want to spoil things for you, but we were surprised it worked, and i would come back to give you an update on how that went how many people were watching, and other things we can still do now that we are on the ground. mr. de there was a report -- mr.
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, te there was a to a report, and the navigation team gave us a trajectory three weeks at a touchdown, and our touchdown time, six tenths of a second down. i want to think one of the attitude control and shares -- steve was gesticulating to us to the window that the point of the spacecraft, and we got that in before the big traffic arrived at about 9:00 in the evening. between saturday and monday we had 900 sunday 3000 businesses
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-- we get people this amazing experience of riding aboard the spacecraft. some of the visits doubled forward. there is an event at the network that used by is on the solar system, hundreds of people walking west watching them. another person was streaming it live into google. a science of industry in georgia, and places in pasadena work watching what was happening we have had reports of about 65 different landing defense -- events. we will replace the trajectory
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with a reconstruction at some point in the future. we will let you know when you can see the actual series of events. we are about one-quarter away from the actual landing site. we are and quad 64. we will put the new check 3 in. there are still things you can find. there are interesting things, and we a people sending their favorite things. one of our favorites was this one. it is the donut shop, people putting the camera right behind the vehicle. we have people sending us different screen shots of things they were doing.
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i will skip through a few of the things that you can still have a look at. mike was talking to us about the ballast impact. here is it leading the spacecraft. the impact site was around this may set down here. again when we get the reconstruction we will put that in here as well. touchdown was a little bit off by .6 seconds. the actual landing site is not far from here. we can show you how far off we were. we're not too far off, we will move this terrain model to bring it up to date when we have that publication. we even have the sky crane fly away that happen to be in roughly the same direction as the real dissent fly away.
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off it goes to a safe disposal. there is even more. takingo to sol 2, we're it at the time when the mast was deployed. i will fast forward. there is the standup. turning around to that, that is the anti-sun position. this does not live in isolation. it lives with all the spacecraft in our solar system. now you can see the whole of the solar system. going back to mars and the present moment of time, this is where things are right now. it is nighttime there now, but we have mro, and there was a question, and i said you can find them right here if you
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fast-43 tie. as the planet rotates, and every two hours these spacecraft's flight over the landing sites. when you get sunrise, we can go into the landing site, and we can see the sun ryan in the east next to mount sharp. all these things, you can still do at home, and we will have a use for you when we have a reconstructed trajectory in a few weeks' time. >> we will start with questions here at jpl. >> mike, the colors you are showing, are they natural or white balanced?
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>> they're not white balance. it is what the camera sent back. the elimination at mars is less than of earth, and we wanted to make sure we did not saturate the detector. the integers were pretty underexposed for a normal photographer, so what britain them up and that is what the bair filter gives you when you look at mars. >> since the simulated the flyaway of the sky crane, can you estimate the angle at which it struck the surface? >> the edl will be on the panel tomorrow. they can give you a better answer to that. it is something around 45 degrees. they will be the best people that asked tomorrow. >> one question up here in the front. then we will go to one on the phone line. >> could you compare what you
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have got with what you will get, give us a sense of how much bigger in terms of the scale of this other image is when you get the whole thing, and will you fill in the top as well? >> it will be 64 times larger. the resolution will be a times better. these are extremely reduced versions of what we are getting paid in a sense, we are originally proposed zoom lenses, so i'm giving you a slow-motion him. we have a low-resolution camera, and then we will go to a height- resolution camera, and then we will use a 100-millimeter lens. this was pretty enough and interesting stuff that we in.ght it was workth share
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we have not filled in the top and me that you saw there are gaps in the bottom as well. those are not in the plan right now. we hope we will get others, and we hope that some time it will be guided by science and not by taking a random picture. this one had to be planned. this was planned in november of last year. what you see is what i thought and it was independent of where the vehicle was pointing. it is a random shot where you land, take a picture, you swirl your tripod and take a picture. it is probably not the best pointed, does not include everything that you would want. we hope as we moved out of the characterization activity phase that we can start putting in and
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getting better things. >> mike res to the point. most of the activity we have executed were up loaded to the vehicle a couple months ago. that is because we wanted to check them out carefully and make sure they are 100% guaranteed to work. also we had to prebuild them. and the talked about his team working on the technical time line that is pressing, so we wanted to reduce the workload. where try to flex our muscles slowly on the rover, a little bit slowly on the team as well, so we wanted to have stuff that uilt.reb these are the precanned
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activities. >> in greater thancap -- in the cap intermission, we have some mosaics we are going to be able to move a little bit. they were planned to be moved. we have a place holder position, and as we get into the phase where we can do that, after the software update, which is critically important to us as well as running the vehicle, then we will move them around, and one of those we hope to shoot with a -- we do not have images- mm millimeter yet. >> thank you for taking my
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question. this is probably for mike or dawan. are there certain features that you are better able to see as opposed to black and white? notice that came through with the color shots? >> color and brightness on mars are very closely correlated. i don't see anything personally in the color that i didn't see in the gray-scaled image. but i am trained. and what to look for. i think the importance of this mosaic at this point is that it can show everybody -- everybody can see the difference is. the discolorations that you see around the rocket plume areas and the color and brightnesses of the rock in mount sharp in
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the for field, those are real differences. we don't know what the differences are, but they are real differences. the color can discriminate something in the order of a thousand different colors, but only about 60 different gray scales. >> for the engineering team come it was easier to see the dust in the color image then in the black and white. >> irish television. these briefings to place just as the news broadcast in europe.
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could you be specific as to when you think, in perth days, when you think the panel will be available and when you think we might be mount shark in full -- mount sharp in full in earth days? how higher those cliffs? >> i don't think i can address all of them. i don't think we will see more than a couple dozen of the full resolution images from this panorama until after the software upload. we're putting commands to -- the idea is that you take pictures with your camera and there in your camera.
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what do you do with them? you physically take out the card and put that in your computer. i can do that with my camera. [laughter] i have to ask the rover to go get them. and we have only put in a request to do that, something like 24 images, to pull them out of the card. and today is the last the we have to be up linking commands like that. now we get some more back. we are also limited by a band with. the images will be to megabits 2 4 billion bits -- 2 megabits to 4 megabits. that will run into the gigabit
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and i am not expecting to see many of those come back for quite a while. we don't have the band with, -- like dsl or cable. so there is that issue. high above the crater wall, there are two problems. the no. crater wall is actually lower than the -- the northern crater wall is actually lower than the peak of the opposite wall. we're below the height of that wall. but it is only about 2 kilometers higher than where we are right now. >> ok, we will go to the phone next. go ahead. >> question for michael watkins
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or anyone else who might answer -- several of the photos that have come down, i see little pixilated versions of the rover. the captions said that they will be used with smart phones. is there an app in the works by jpl and when are you going to release it to? will you attempt to make these open, like google and so forth, so people can add the data? >> i can take that one. i am not sure the specific timeline for the ar tags. you are probably best putting in a question to my bpo for that. but online, there is already an on-line experience. the be a martian app already i

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CSPAN August 9, 2012 5:00pm-8:00pm EDT

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